Abstract: Environmental awareness is to understand the fragility of our environment and the importance of its protection. Promoting environmental awareness is an easy way to become an environmental steward and participate in creating a brighter future for our children. Before you can begin promoting environmental awareness in your own community you must first make sure that you have a thorough understanding of environmental issues. People’s actions do not reflect such high levels of environmental consciousness (Ai Hiramatsu et al., 2015). Such contradiction between attitude and action has been mentioned in studies (see Stern, 2000; Kollmuss, Agyeman, 2002; Giuseppe, 2006; Ando et al., 2007; Harju-Autti et al., 2014). The aim of this paper is to review environmental awareness, for example Belgrade municiplaty Voždovac.
Abstract: This research will examine the effect of person’s age on supplemental investment habits towards retirement in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Thus, the basic aim of the study is to find out if the age of individuals have an effect on saving and investing habits for retirement. It has been observed that age of person has effect on the supplemental investment habits towards retirement. In this research both primary and secondary data will be used. The primary data for this research was gathered in the form of survey. Data analysis was conducted in SPSS software. Statistical tests were run to see if the age of individuals has effect on saving for retirement. As we found in previous researches that age plays very important role in saving and investing habits, also in this research we came to the conclusion that age of individuals really plays an important role in saving habits of citizens from Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of two quantitative (price (taxes included) of cigarettes per pack and personal income) and of three socioeconomic variables (education level, percentage of the population aged 15-24 and unemployment rate) on the quantity of cigarette consumption per capita per year for each of the eight countries: China, India, Japan, Russia, Brazil, USA, Germany and UK. Three different econometric methods were used, namely pooled cross-section time series, fixed and random effects to estimate cigarette consumption at the country level. The three models showed that cigarettes are a normal good (a necessity) and that an increase in income will cause an increase in cigarettes sales per individual age 15 and over. Moreover, the pooled OLS with cross-section specific coefficients model indicated that China, Japan, Russia, USA and Germany present negative cigarette price elasticity, Brazil presents positive price elasticity, while India and UK present price elasticity not significantly different from zero. The results of pooled OLS model for the three socioeconomic variables showed that their coefficient estimates are slightly negative and significantly different from zero. Once country-level unobserved heterogeneity was taken into account the models indicated, that countries with more university graduates have slightly lower cigarette sales per adult, while the other two socioeconomic variables were found to be statistically not significant.
Abstract: The article describes subsidiarity management. The article compares hierarchical and subsidiarity management. The article introduces the concept of information construction. The article describes information constructions of hierarchical and subsidiarity control. The article introduces a topological scheme of time intervals for hierarchical control. The calculation of hierarchical control cycle time is provided. The calculation of time for the downstream (managerial) and upstream (reporting) information flows is shown. The calculation of subsidiarity control cycle time is provided. Describes the application conditions of hierarchical and subsidiarity management.
Abstract: This study seeks to evaluate the exact effect that financial reforms have on national savings in Nigeria from 1985 to 2015 using ARDL estimation technique based on Bewley transformation. The study found that both variables of financial reforms namely, interest rate spread and exchange rate spread had inverse and significant coefficient estimates. Hence, we accept the alternative hypothesis that financial reforms plummet aggregate savings in Nigeria. The study thus recommends the need for the CBN to create adequate financial instruments that are flexible enough to meet risk preferences of financial operators.