Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic as a public health crisis also has a major effect on development. Though there has been a prediction of economic decline worldwide, developing African countries are anticipated to have the worst form of impact. In this paper, we reviewed the impact of COVID-19 on the economic development of Ghana. We observed that Ghana’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate had been reviewed downwards by the International Monetary Funds from 5.8 % to 1.5 %. This would be seen as the least recorded GDP growth since the year 1983. The Minister of Finance in a statement to the Parliament of Ghana indicated that COVID-19 would directly affect production, trade, and investment within Ghana and between Ghana and the world. He added that the pandemic will affect the prices of global commodities (crude oil, gold, and cocoa), tourism, fiscal stance, and human life, mainly the health and life of the most vulnerable. Also, COVID-19 would indirectly affect Ghana’s economic growth through the decline of global economic growth and supply chain interferences. In light of the socio-economic challenges created by the pandemic, Ghana has so far thrived immensely in the management of this crisis. Despite the future inevitable economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, Ghana will be able to endure with a good system of governance, adequate public health measures, and a strong macroeconomic foundation.
Abstract: Fostering the sustainable development of a tourism region involves planning and managing the development of areas within it, with a focus on protecting their natural and cultural environments, managing their resort-and-recreation resources, enhancing their environmental condition, improving the quality of life of their population, and ensuring world-class conditions for the comfortable stay of their visitors. The development of resort areas comes with a whole host of implications, both positive and negative. In today's volatile market environment, the need to develop and maintain a competitive tourism product suggests the importance of assessing on a regular basis an area’s current environmental condition and the condition of its natural resources. Environmental assessment is crucial to an area’s sustainable development. A serious damage to a region’s natural-recreational potential is capable of canceling out any of its economic and sectoral achievements, including those associated with the development of the tourism industry in the area.
Research on the dynamics of pollution in Krasnodar Krai (Russia) indicates that its resort areas tend to differ in terms of both particular components of pollution and indicators of the current environmental condition. With that said, for particular resort areas in the region, and for the entire region as a whole, this condition is determined, above all, by the degree to which the following two resources, which are most significant to the successful development of tourism in an area, are polluted – water and air. An analysis indicates that at this point an exacerbation of certain environmental problems in resort areas in Krasnodar Krai appears to be inevitable.
The findings from the research reported in this paper suggest that, while Krasnodar Krai’s resort areas are on course for environmental sustainability, there remain issues that need to be addressed. The most serious factors hindering the region from achieving sustainable environmental development include air and seawater pollution, growing volumes of solid and liquid waste, and increased recreational strain on its resort areas, especially in the summertime. Accordingly, there is a need to take an ecosystems approach to integrally assessing the environmental situation in the region’s resort areas.
Abstract: In recent years, efforts have been made in order to create a new model of development. This can be considered as a general effort of the various local communities to achieve economic development. It is also crucial for this new model to implement the social aspect as well as the economic aspect. This can be achieved by considering as critical tools for development, culture and sport, combined with the historical memory of the various societies.
Lately, there is a world trend on investing and expecting a significant turn over in terms of economic and social capital for the local communities, from local sport events and activities. Sport events are such as running races organized every weekend in the urban and rural areas.
The present research paper tries to study the effects on the local economy and local community in general, of the various running events organized in the Larissa Regional Unit, based in central Greece. Those sport events, can have a positive effect on the local community in many ways for the economy, tourism and society.
In order to identify those implications, the running events of Ippokrateios in Larissa city, and Gentiki Trail race will be studied in the present research paper. Those two sport events that are studied in the present research paper, are two characteristic events of Larissa Regional Unit, with effect on both rural and urban local communities.
Abstract: This research is examining the effect of Consumer Price Index (CPI) to calculate the change
in Annual Net Salary (ANS), across the three Balkan countries: Bosnia, Serbia and Croatia.
The study will be using the data with the graphical representations and publications regarding CPI
and ANS in the period from 2014 to 2018 from the „Agency of Statistics in BiH“, „Trading
Econometrics“ and „CEIC Data“. In order to test the hypothesis regression approach will be used
where we define the regression models, find statistical relationship and present calculations
reached in Excel and SPSS. Authors confirm the main hypothesis for all three countries using
statistical tools such as mean and the median of descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, model
summary with R, R-Square(s) and standard error of the estimate, ANOVA significance and
coefficients – confidence intervals. Authors show that the relationship of CPI and ANS is rather
strong hence the hypothesis stands. Authors conclude that this research could be helpful for the
analysis of similar indicators for other transition economies.
Abstract: Each enterprise, as well as the state, requires a certain accumulated layer of information that reflects all market trends in order to successfully manage internal economic systems. The company is more interested in the industry in which it operates, which makes it monitor its market with various marketing tools. A common vision of the market and understanding of its development trends is the key to the long-term development of any enterprise. The state also needs information on all sectors of the economy, it is a generalized indicator of its development and is formed in the concept of the business climate of the country. At the moment, against the background of positive, but at the same time, low growth rates of the Russian economy, projected inflation rates, and foreign sanctions, the country's business climate is not sufficiently favorable. This is reflected in the assessments of both foreign experts and the results of domestic research. The end-user market reacts most acutely to changes in market conditions. The consumer confidence index is more likely to undergo sharp fluctuations than all other indicators of the country's business climate. The retail market is an indicator of the mood of the final consumer. The paper assesses the General state of the retail trade market in Russia as of the 3rd quarter of 2019, defines criteria and indicators of economic efficiency and inefficiency of this sector of the economy, identifies signs of inefficient development of the economic system, factors that affect the dynamics of its development and other factors that allow correct management of this economic system. Also, the paper gives the concepts of the business climate and the end user. The business climate of Russia as a whole is estimated, the main indicators of economic development and their forecast values are given.